El 74% de las stablecoins se emiten en Ethereum

El 74% de las stablecoins se emiten en Ethereum, según un nuevo informe

El informe 4Q 2020 de ConsenSys Codefi sobre las tendencias de DeFi también predice más tokens „envueltos“, productos de préstamo por tramos y derivados de Ethereum 2.0 en 2021.

Tres cuartas partes de todas las stablecoins se emiten ahora en la blockchain de Ethereum, en comparación con sólo la mitad de las stablecoins hace un año. El valor colectivo de las transacciones de stablecoins en Ethereum ahora Bitcoin Revolution también supera en gran medida el del éter (ETH), la criptomoneda nativa de la blockchain, según un informe de Ethereum DeFi publicado hoy por ConsenSys.

Ethereum y lo que ocurre en la popular plataforma es de inmenso interés para el mundo de la blockchain y la criptodivisa porque la gran mayoría de los protocolos DeFi y las stablecoins operan ahora en Ethereum. ConsenSys es un desarrollador de software blockchain para Ethereum.

Dos de las mayores tendencias de las criptomonedas en 2020 fueron el aumento de las finanzas descentralizadas (DeFi) y el crecimiento de las stablecoins. La capitalización de mercado de las finanzas descentralizadas (DeFi) supera ahora los 45.000 millones de dólares, y el valor total bloqueado en los protocolos DeFi ha superado los 25.500 millones de dólares.
Rápido ascenso de las stablecoins

Según el informe de ConsenSys, el año pasado se realizaron transacciones de más de un billón de dólares en stablecoins en Ethereum. Tether, la stablecoin más popular, liquidó por sí sola 580.000 millones de dólares en Ethereum en 2020, mientras que el volumen de transacciones de ETH fue de 385.000 millones de dólares.

A partir del 1 de enero de este año, el 74% de todas las stablecoins fueron emitidas en Ethereum y con un valor de unos 20.000 millones de dólares, según el informe. Y la población de stablecoins ha pasado de estar respaldada mayoritariamente por fiat (por ejemplo, USDC, USDT) a muchos „nuevos sabores“ como criptocolateralizados (por ejemplo, USDT), con intereses (por ejemplo, cUSDC, aUSDC, aUSDT), sintéticos (por ejemplo, sUSD) y algorítmicos (por ejemplo, AMPL, yUSDC).
Volumen de transacciones de ETH, DAI, USDC y USDTChart: Volumen de transacciones de ETH, DAI, USDC y USDT liquidadas en Ethereum. Fuente: ConsenSys

El informe señala que, a medida que las stablecoins ganan protagonismo, también han atraído un mayor escrutinio gubernamental, recientemente en forma de la controvertida Ley STABLE. DeFi también se ha convertido en el tema de los debates sobre la regulación.

La comisionada de la SEC y „criptomamá“, Hester Peirce, dijo en una entrevista a Forkast.News que regular la DeFi sería un reto „porque la mayor parte de la forma en que regulamos es a través de intermediarios – y cuando realmente construyes algo que está descentralizado, no hay intermediarios“.

Los reguladores podrían ayudar a aportar claridad, dijo Peirce. „Es importante para nosotros proporcionar algo de ayuda allí para las personas que tratan de entender, ‚¿Cómo interactúa DeFi con las leyes de valores?“

Demanda de liquidez de DeFi

Otras tendencias clave a partir de 2020 incluyen el aumento de la demanda de liquidez DeFi. Los intercambios descentralizados (DEX) como Uniswap aumentaron su popularidad a mediados de 2020, lo que llevó a nuevas entradas de valor tokenizado en Ethereum – desde los tokens envueltos (como Wrapped Ethereum, Wrapped Bitcoin) y la red de almacenamiento descentralizado Filecoin, hasta el aumento de la demanda de las instituciones y otros protocolos basados en blockchain. El informe predice que el impulso continuará, y que más protocolos lanzarán versiones envueltas de sus tokens en Ethereum en 2021.

Uphold exchange launches crypto card in Europe

Uphold has acquired Optimus Cards Company to provide this service.

After launching a crypto card in the United States, Uphold plans to roll out a card in Europe in April 2021.

Uphold Card

The Uphold exchange acquired the European card issuer Optimus Cards UK Limited to be able to launch its card in Europe.

JP Thieriot, CEO of Uphold, said the launch in Europe follows a successful deployment in the United States:

From April, we plan to launch the first debit card on the Optimus platform in Europe. The card has already proven itself to our US customers, offering a unique combination of utility, convenience and rewards in cryptocurrency.

The new card will support 24 cryptocurrencies, 27 currencies and four precious metals

Optimus is one of the largest issuers of debit and credit cards in Europe. The company is regulated by the UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) as an electronic money institution and acts as a card issuer and payments facilitator. Optimus services are compatible with major platforms like Apple Pay and Google Pay.

Uphold did not disclose the cost of the acquisition.

La bolla Bitcoin prima o poi scoppierà, dice il famoso critico russo della BTC

Anatoly Aksakov della Duma di Stato russa ha suggerito che le giurisdizioni globali dovrebbero vietare il Bitcoin come metodo di pagamento.

Il Bitcoin non è sostenuto da nulla e quindi la bolla

Anatoly Aksakov, membro della Duma di Stato russa, ha ribadito la sua posizione negativa sul Bitcoin (BTC) poco dopo che la crittovaluta ha brevemente ritoccato 40.000 dollari il 14 gennaio.

In un’intervista con l’agenzia di stampa locale TASS, Aksakov ha sostenuto che il Bitcoin non è sostenuto da nulla e quindi la bolla Bitcoin è pronta a scoppiare prima o poi:

„Il Bitcoin non è supportato da nulla come una moneta criptata. Si tratta di una valuta privata, e il suo valore si basa sulla fiducia del relativo sistema di dati. In questo contesto il Bitcoin fornisce una base per una bolla sul mercato dei crittografi, e penso che questa bolla dovrebbe scoppiare prima o poi“.

Aksakov ha anche sollecitato l’adozione di norme severe sul Bitcoin, suggerendo che le giurisdizioni globali dovrebbero probabilmente vietarlo come metodo di pagamento. La Russia ha già vietato i pagamenti criptati a partire dal 1° gennaio 2021.

Aksakov ha dichiarato:

„È necessario tagliare tutti i canali per l’uso del Bitcoin per finanziare il traffico di droga, le operazioni terroristiche, il riciclaggio di denaro sporco, gli schemi di corruzione e così via“.

„La madre della catena di blocco“

Aksakov ha anche osservato che il Bitcoin è „la madre della catena di blocco“. „La tecnologia Blockchain esiste da molto tempo, ma grazie al Bitcoin è diventata popolare ed è ora ampiamente utilizzata“, ha detto.

Aksakov non è l’unico a sostenere che il Bitcoin è una bolla. Michael Hartnett, principale stratega degli investimenti della Bank of America Securities, ha sostenuto che il Bitcoin assomiglia alla „madre di tutte le bolle“ all’inizio di gennaio 2021.

Come già riportato dal Cointelegraph, Aksakov è emerso come uno dei maggiori critici del Bitcoin nel 2020. Egli è fiducioso che il Bitcoin „non ha futuro“ e che i pagamenti criptati distruggerebbero il sistema finanziario globale.

Dopo il massiccio rally di Bitcoin che ha portato il suo prezzo fino a 42.000 dollari a gennaio, un certo numero di autorità globali hanno espresso critiche alla più grande moneta criptata del mondo. Il Presidente della Banca Centrale Europea Christine Lagarde ha sostenuto il 13 gennaio che la Bitcoin è un „bene altamente speculativo“ e un „business divertente“ che contribuisce al riciclaggio di denaro sporco.

Trump bans eight Chinese payment apps

Donald Trump stands in front of a lectern. The US flag can be seen behind it.

US President Donald Trump has banned eight Chinese payment service providers in the US by decree. Including AliPay and WeChat Pay.

It is the latest attack in the raging trade war between the two economic powers

Donald Trump is in the final days of his presidency. The outgoing US president is now using one of his last official acts to ban several Chinese payment apps in the USA. To this end, Trump signed a decree on January 5th, which was posted on the White House homepageis visible. According to this, the American head of state bans the financial applications of several Chinese companies, including Alipay, the online trading platform Alibaba and WeChat Pay from the Internet company Tencent. CamScanner, QQ Wallet, SHAREit, Tencent QQ, VMate, and WPS Office are also affected. It is one of the final blows between the Trump administration and China.

The decree enters into force 45 days after its adoption. Consumers are then no longer allowed to conduct business using the payment apps. Transactions that would circumvent the ban are also prohibited. As a justification, the current president cites data protection reasons that concern “national security”. He feared that the Beijing government would misuse Americans‘ personal data for espionage purposes. The information obtained from the data could, for example, allow China to create dossiers from federal officials. It is a matter of „national security“, said Trump. In addition, these apps threatened:

In addition, the president had instructed his trade minister to keep an eye out for other Chinese companies that pose a threat to national security.

Trump’s fight against China goes into the next round

At the beginning of August last year, Donald Trump announced plans to ban the popular Chinese video platform TikTok. At that time he accused the company ByteDance, which is behind TikTok, of also transferring data from US citizens to the Chinese government. As a result, software giant Microsoft was urged by the US government to negotiate a deal with ByteDance to take over the US business. In December, Trump suffered a major setback after a US court ruled that the president’s move was „not legally covered“.

Specifically, Trump relied on a law of 1977 that grants the US president broad emergency powers in the event of extraordinary dangers from abroad. However, the import and export of information or information material as well as personal communication should not be restricted. According to the judge, TikTok clearly falls into this category. He therefore granted the interim injunction against the operating ban requested by Tiktok.

With the current bans, however, the White House could be more successful, as in the current case the circumcision of information and the restriction of freedom of speech are less likely to be the case.

Bitcoin keert terug boven $ 28K, Altcoins sturen bullish signalen

Bitcoin-prijs verlengde zijn stijging tot boven $ 27.500 en $ 28.000.

Ethereum heeft de weerstandsregio van $ 745 opnieuw getest, XRP kon $ 0,250 niet overtreffen.

DOT bleef in een sterke uptrend en steeg zelfs boven het niveau van $ 7,00

Na een kleine daling begon de bitcoin-prijs opnieuw te stijgen boven de niveaus van $ 26.500 en $ 27.000. Wat nog belangrijker is, BTC brak het weerstandsniveau van $ 27.250. De prijs piekte zelfs boven $ 28.200 en het consolideert momenteel (05:00 UTC) winsten.

Evenzo waren er positieve bewegingen in de meeste grote altcoins. ETH / USD handelde boven de weerstand van $ 735, maar had opnieuw moeite om de weerstandszone van $ 745 te zuiveren. XRP / USD voltooide een opwaartse correctie in de buurt van $ 0,250 en daalde tot $ 0,195.

Totale marktkapitalisatie

Er was een gestage stijging van de bitcoin-prijs boven de weerstandsniveaus van $ 27.000 en $ 27.250. BTC klom zelfs boven het niveau van $ 27.800 en piekte boven de zone van $ 28.000. Er was echter geen opwaartse voortzetting boven $ 28.250 en de prijs corrigeerde een paar punten lager.

Aan de andere kant ligt een eerste ondersteuning in de buurt van het niveau van $ 27.800. De eerste belangrijke ondersteuning bevindt zich in de buurt van het niveau van $ 27.500. De belangrijkste ondersteuning vormt zich nu in de buurt van $ 27.250 (de recente breakout-zone).

Ethereum prijs

Ethereum-prijs volgde ook bitcoin en klom boven de weerstandsniveaus van $ 720 en $ 730. ETH brak zelfs $ 740, maar het worstelde om hoger te blijven dan de belangrijkste weerstand van $ 745. Het corrigeerde lager onder $ 740, maar er zijn veel ondersteuningen aan de onderkant.

Een eerste steun aan de onderkant wordt gezien in de buurt van het niveau van $ 725. De belangrijkste uitvalondersteuning zou op korte termijn $ 720 kunnen zijn, waaronder de prijs de ondersteuningszone van $ 700 opnieuw zou kunnen bezoeken.

Bitcoin cash, litecoin en XRP-prijs

Bitcoin Cash-prijs is meer dan 5% gestegen en heeft de niveaus van $ 340 en $ 350 gewist. BCH handelt nu boven het niveau van $ 350. Het lijkt erop dat de bulls streven naar een nieuwe test van het niveau van $ 365. Nog meer winsten zouden het tempo kunnen bepalen voor een duw naar het weerstandsniveau van $ 380 op korte termijn.

Litecoin (LTC) consolideert zich boven de niveaus van $ 122 en $ 125. Een onmiddellijke weerstand ligt in de buurt van het niveau van $ 132. De eerste belangrijke weerstand ligt in de buurt van het niveau van $ 135. Een duidelijke doorbraak boven het niveau van $ 135 kan mogelijk de deuren openen voor een gestage stijging naar het niveau van $ 142.

XRP-prijsscherp hoger gecorrigeerd boven $ 0,220 en $ 0,232. Het kreeg echter geen momentum boven $ 0,250 en begon aan een nieuwe daling. Het trimde de meeste van zijn winsten en handelde onder $ 0,210 en $ 0,200 ondersteuningsniveaus. Het lijkt erop dat de prijs zou kunnen blijven dalen naar de ondersteuningszone van $ 0,180.

Bitcoin: Retail mod hvalhandlere, og hvem tjente mest på?

Bitcoins sidste 2 kvartaler i 2020 har været ret ustabile. Snarere har det været tilfældet det meste af 2020. Faktisk havde hvert kvartal noget vigtigt som det pandemisk-inducerede nedbrud i 1. kvartal, det V-formede opsving i 2. kvartal, det institutionelle køb i 3. kvartal, efterfulgt af den hurtige priseksplosion i 4. kvartal.

Mens institutioner har og fortsætter med at erhverve tunge BTC-poser inden tyren, er det indlysende, at Bitcoin er klar til at udføre

Lad os dog se på, hvordan markedets hvaler, institutioner, detailhandlere og professionelle handlende klarede sig i løbet af de sidste 4 måneder.

Ifølge en rapport fra OKEx blev der observeret en klar tendens i de sidste 4 måneder, hvor retail var mere bullish på kort sigt end institutionel, omend sidstnævnte var langsigtet bullish.

Sammenfattende købte detailhandel i FOMO, mens hvaler ikke gjorde det. OKEx opsummerede det ved at sige,

”Det ser ud til, at detailhandlere har forfulgt Bitcoins prisrally … mens professionelle forhandlere også sluttede sig til rallyet senere, synes store handlende (og muligvis hvaler) at have taget fortjeneste. mod salg. ”

Til dette formål klassificerede OKExs rapport handlende mellem 0-0,5 BTC som detailhandel, 0,5 til 2 BTC som professionelle handlende, 2-5 og 5-10 BTC-handlende som hvaler og 10 + BTC-indehavere institutionelle. Det skal dog bemærkes, at 2-5 BTC- og 10 + BTC-indehavere inkluderer overlappende hvaler og institutioner.

Metrics

Det kan ses, at detailhandlere købte BTC, der jagter sin pris fra september til november, mens professionelle forhandlere fulgte en lignende tendens. Hvaler solgte dog deres beholdning eller tog overskud.

Institutioner, der har BTC på lang sigt, syntes neutrale i september, men tog overskud, da Bitcoin ramte sin ATH mod slutningen af ​​november.

En lignende tendens kan ses i den sidste uge i november, en tid, hvor detailkøb købte BTC, mens hvaler og institutioner tog overskud.

For at opsummere alt dette klart skal detailhandlen tage et hit, da Bitcoin nu er langt under sine højdepunkter fra et par uger siden. Institutioner og hvaler vil dog købe flere Bitcoins, da kryptokurrencyens pris fortsætter med at falde.

Influência das Minas de Oligarcas Ucranianas Bitcoin na Fábrica dos EUA

O mais rico e mais controverso dos oligarcas da Ucrânia, Igor Kolomoisky, é relatado que está usando uma fábrica pertencente à CC Metals & Alloys (CCMA), sediada no Kentucky, para extrair Bitcoin usando eletricidade barata, enquanto a fábrica fechou tudo, menos o equipamento de mineração.

O equipamento mineiro funciona, enquanto a fábrica congelou a produção

A CC Metals & Alloys tem uma história de 70 anos de operações. Em julho deste ano, a fábrica foi fechada e os trabalhadores enviaram para casa – alguns dos quais estavam em situação de incêndio – devido aos despedimentos causados pela pandemia.

Entretanto, enquanto as pessoas planejavam voltar ao trabalho, foi-lhes dito de repente que, até dezembro, o resto do pessoal seria demitido. A única coisa que ainda está funcionando nos edifícios da empresa é o equipamento de mineração Bitcoin.

A fábrica pertence ao oligarca ucraniano Igor Kolomoisky e seu parceiro de negócios, Gennadiy Bogolyubov, bilionário e homem de negócios.

Recentemente, a fábrica aventurou-se em cadeia de blocos e inteligência artificial a fim de diversificar seus lucros. Um terceiro foi escolhido para instalar o equipamento informático necessário na fábrica.

Recentemente, um trabalhador, cujo nome permanece por revelar, declarou que o equipamento de mineração é o único equipamento que trabalha na fábrica, enquanto suas principais instalações de produção estão fechadas.

Eletricidade de baixo custo para a mineração

Os operadores de mineração Crypto estão utilizando a eletricidade de baixo custo disponível no estado do Kentucky, perto do rio Tennessee; essa não é a única fábrica de mineração da região.

É improvável que a fábrica seja relançada como um produtor de metal devido à pressão legislativa das autoridades americanas sobre Kolomoisky e Bogolyubov.

Os oligarcas são acusados de pegar bilhões de dólares do maior banco da Ucrânia, Privat, que eles possuem, e investir esses fundos em usinas de ferro e aço americanas e outros ativos, incluindo bens imobiliários.

Ex-sócio comercial do atual presidente da Ucrânia

O atual presidente da Ucrânia, Volodymir Zelenskiy, costumava trabalhar com Kolomoisky no popular canal de TV 1+1 baseado em Kyiv, onde Zelenskiy era produtor de filmes de comédia e programas de standup.

PayPal’s shares have gone up 17% since they allowed Bitcoin purchases

The online payment platform launched the crypto-currency trade for U.S. customers on November 12.

PayPal shares reached record highs on Monday, culminating a strong period of outperformance relative to the Nasdaq and the US stock market in general.

Bnext partners with Onyze to offer crypto custody service

Since November 12, the Nasdaq’s focus on technology has gained about 6.5%. The large-cap S&P 500 index rose 3.5% during the same period.
3-month PayPal stock performance by barchart.com

Although PayPal’s foray into the crypto world is not the only catalyst behind its superior performance, the commercial processor is well positioned to capitalize on the growing adoption of digital assets. Some analysts have even speculated that a higher price for Bitcoin (BTC) could have a positive effect on PayPal’s prospects.

Did Bitcoin just score a floor? BTC claims the $19,000 level as the new rally gains momentum

There’s also evidence that the payment processor may be positively influencing the price of Bitcoin. Recent industry data suggests that PayPal may have collected up to 70% of newly mined BTC in the weeks prior to the launch of its crypto-currency platform in the US.

Although estimates vary, a 2019 survey of 5,000 people stated that 6.2% of Americans over the age of 18 own Bitcoin. The survey said an additional 7.3% plan to buy BTC for the first time.

He publicly retracted that! Reputable people who reconciled with cryptosystems in 2020

If these numbers are to be believed, crypto-currencies could have a positive impact on PayPal’s business as more people gravitate to the easy-access ramps. Case in point: Square’s Cash App has experienced an increase in revenue since it allowed Bitcoin purchases. In fact, nearly 80% of the Q3 revenue from Cash App was derived from commissions charged to Bitcoin buyers.

PayPal Holdings (PYPL) shares have gained a whopping 17% since Nov. 12, the day the online trader launched its crypto currency trading platform for eligible US customers.

Bitcoin shortage is a reality and PayPal is the cause, says Pantera Capital

PayPal plans to launch its crypto-currency services globally in early 2021. CEO Dan Shulman said it’s only a matter of time before his company begins supporting central bank digital currencies, or CBDCs, when they become available.

Chainalysis: New investment round brings valuation to USD 1,000,000,000

With the analysis company Chainalysis, things continue to improve. Not only public authorities but the whole industry could benefit from this.

The expertise of the block-chain analysis company Chainalysis has long since become known to regulatory and law enforcement agencies. Chainalysis has already taken action against the supposed anonymity of Privacy Coins. The company has specialised in recording and closely examining block chain transactions. The results of the investigation are then passed on to governmental and regulatory authorities and financial institutions in 40 countries. The fight against crime is one of Chainalysis‘ objectives, although not the only one. A recent study has also revealed that some 3.7 million BTC are lost forever.

Some black sheep in the crypto industry will therefore register with some uneasiness that Chainalysis was recently able to land 100 million dollars in a Series C financing round. This brings the value of the company to one billion US dollars. In the middle of this year, a Series B financing round of Chainalysis had already been extremely successful.

By cooperating with government agencies, Chainalysis does not only want to support the work against criminals. Rather, it also wants to dispel the prejudice that crypto-currencies are mainly used in semi-silent business. A healthy growth of the crypto sector requires knowledge of it among regulators, according to the philosophy of the company, which was founded six years ago.

Chainalysis could soon make an acquisition

Understandably, Michael Gronager, co-founder and CEO of Chainalysis, expressed great enthusiasm following the conclusion of the investment round. He noted that the funds will contribute to the expansion of the company’s business. Ultimately, the investors will also benefit. The lion’s share of the $100 million most recently raised is from addition. This is an investment company founded by former Tiger Global Management investor Lee Fixel. Other former investors also joined, including Accel, Benchmark and Ribbit.

According to media reports, as part of the investment Chainalysis plans to almost double its workforce over the next year. Among others, international politics, sales and marketing and research and development will receive more staff. Chainalysis currently employs around 200 people. Gronager indicated to Forbes magazine that the new capital might also be used to take over another company. This would strengthen the already strong market position of Chainalysis. For the crypto-sector, the consequences could be positive. There is no denying that the number of institutional investors in Bitcoin has never been higher than at present.

Hackers strike again at judicial system and TSE says it expects ‚further leaks‘ on election Sunday

Brazil continues to suffer at the hands of hackers, who attack public entities with ransomware and ask for ransoms in cryptomedas.

Hackers return to attack judicial system and TSE says it expects ’new leaks‘ on Election SundayNOTÍCIAS

Brazilian justice has suffered another hacker attack this week. After the Superior Court of Justice, the Superior Electoral Court and the Justice of Santa Catarina, it was the turn of the Regional Court of the First Region (TRF-1) to suffer an attack this Friday on its website.

Serpro reveals that the Brazilian government has suffered 2,300 hacker attacks per second in the last 15 days
The hackers posted an image forming the face of a „devil“ to commemorate the attack and leaked data from processes on the Deep Web, as reported by Fausto Macedo’s Blog of Estadão. The TRF-1 advisory says the database is in „maintenance to analyze a possible security breach“.

The invaders also posted messages on the Deep Web celebrating the „data capture,“ saying they proved the „vulnerability“ of Brazilian justice, invading a court that gathers cases from 13 states and the Federal District.

The court’s advisors declared, however, that despite the attack the posted material „was already in the public domain:

„The Court’s team is evaluating now, but at first there was only a disclosure of material that was already in the public domain“.

TSE says it expects further leaks in the 2nd round of elections
After suffering from hacking on Sunday of the first round of municipal elections in Brazil, the Supreme Electoral Court, which saw data from public servants leaked as a result of the attack, says it is „waiting for more leaks“ this Sunday, when the second round of the current plea will be voted.

GSI limits server access to systems to try to ’shield‘ government from hacker attacks
TSE technicians told Folha that they expect new administrative information from the court, obtained by hackers „over the year“, to be leaked on Sunday.

The Public Prosecutor’s Office and the Federal Court are investigating an orchestrated lawsuit, supposedly involving hackers and scholarship holders like blogger Oswaldo Eustaquio, who is under house arrest, to discredit the Brazilian electoral system.

The electronic ballot boxes, however, as the TSE has stated more than once, are not connected to any network, making hacker attacks with electoral objectives practically impossible in the country. To circumvent the elections, it would be necessary to physically access all the ballot boxes used in the electoral process.

Hacking has not only affected justice, but also other state entities, including the federal government. Most attacks install a ransomware to block the systems and ask for ransom payment in Bitcoin or privacy currencies like Monero.

Hacker gang announces end to activities, but experts warn of new groups
At the beginning of this month, the systems of the Ministry of Health were also attacked, which affected the consolidation of the number of cases and victims of coronavirus in Brazil.

According to experts, the country is not prepared to deal with the attacks, although the government and members of the judiciary and legislature have formed a „crisis committee“ to combat hackers.

As reported by Cointelegraph Brasil, Brazil has become a global hub for hackers this year, with criminals commanding attacks throughout Latin America and Europe.